Monday, August 21st, 2017

Muscular Development

William Llewellyn has been a monthly columnist (Anabolic Research Update) for Muscular Development magazine since July 2002. Based on the success of his column and growing reader interest, MD expanded his coverage in May 2009 with a second monthly question and answer column titled, “ANABOLICS Q&A”. The following is a brief summary of his articles.

2010

July 2010 – Anabolic Research Update discusses recent progress with the research chemical ACE-031. This is a potent inhibitor of myostatin, a protein that negatively regulates muscle growth in humans. Also discussed is a recent clinical study that examined the effects of contest prep dieting on various anabolic hormones, and may help explain some of the mechanisms behind muscle breakdown during calorie restriction.

ANABOLICS Q&A answers a reader question about examining raw testosterone enanthate powder for legitimacy, without the use of a lab test. William also discusses his preferred cycling/stacking method, which he calls the “estrogenic-androgen base concept”.

June 2010 – Anabolic Research Update discusses a recent legal ruling in England, where a judge determined that not enough evidence existed to link steroid use to the death of a teen, atrial fibrillation and anabolic steroid use, and recent reports that the online email service Hushmail may be looking at users emails for legal violations.

ANABOLICS Q&A discusses reducing the health impact of testosterone use for bodybuilding, and reports on a new fake form of methandrostenolone supposedly coming out of Austria.

May 2010 – Anabolic Research Update discusses a DEA alert concerning a legally manufactured stanozolol lozenge “steroid candy”, a new long acting GH preparation in development, and a World Health Organization report disclosing more than half of all drugs purchased over the internet are fake.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as “bioidentical hormone therapy”, early signs of gynecomastia development, anabolic/androgenic steroid use and cortisol levels, and a fake stanozolol product supposedly from Venezuela.

April 2010 – “U.S. Aveed/Nebido Delayed” discusses the delayed U.S. FDA approval of injectable testosterone undecanoate, a slow acting injectable androgen available in 86 other countries, which requires as little as four injections per year to maintain therapeutic hormone levels.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as high concentration transdermal testosterone crèmes from compounding pharmacies, rating the most effective oral steroids for building muscle, and repeat infections with the use of an injectable steroid.

March 2010 – Anabolic Research Update discusses how scientists are looking for the anti-catabolic secrets of hibernating bats, links between anabolic steroids and musculoskeletal injuries, Brazilian Durateston, and the development of an oral growth hormone medication.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as the need (or not) for escalating doses on consecutive cycles, effective PCT (post-cycle therapy) protocols, and how to calculate the amount of base steroid in a given dose of an esterified injectable.

February 2010 – Anabolic Research Update covers new medical studies concerning such things as the delay in noticing benefits after initiating testosterone replacement therapy, a refutation of the steroids as gateway drugs theory, and the booming counterfeit drug business in China.

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January 2010 – Anabolic Research Update discusses new medical studies pertaining to a link between estrogens to male libido, testosterone elevations in athletes after watching videos of previous victories, and an improved testosterone implant pellet with fewer adverse reactions at the site of implantation.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as the scarce global unavailability of pharmaceutical drostanolone propionate, counterfeit SYD Group stanozolol, and running longer cycles with Equipoise.

2009

December 2009 – “2009 Counterfeit Steroid Report” examines a group of laboratory tests that were conducted on anabolic steroid and growth hormone products in the United Kingdom. The results show a fairly high prominence of counterfeiting and substitute/lack of active ingredients.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as transdermal testosterone for HRT (cycling vs. constant use), websites selling fake steroid supplements, AAS availability in Colombia, and the counterfeiting of defunct labs British Dragon and QV.

November 2009 – Anabolic Research Update discusses the synthesis of new steroid compounds in Cuba, as well as the potential for post-exercise cold compress use to reduce levels of the anabolic hormone IGF-1 (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1).

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as underground steroid products from Lyka Labs, use of the blood pressure medication clonidine for increasing growth hormone levels, and the potential for gynecomastia to return after surgery.

September 2009 – “Are Steroids Addicting?” examines the medical evidence pertaining to the reinforcing nature of anabolic steroids, concluding that claims of “steroid addiction” are not presently well supported by convincing evidence.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as injection site pain from Equipoise, transdermal application of oral steroids, and the feasibility of producing injectable esters of oral steroids, such as stanozolol enanthate.

August 2009 – In “Bacteria Contamination Report” William sends off a group of underground and grey market steroid products to a DEA licensed laboratory for testing. The results showed that several sample were positive for bacterial contamination, a potentially dangerous problem.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as trenbolone and dark colored urine, the carcinogenicity of Nolvadex, and once vs. three times per week injections of enanthate.

July 2009 – “Testosterone and the Heart, A New Era” looks at the growing medical evidence supporting a protective role of testosterone with regard to serum lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and the potential health benefits of hormone replacement therapy in older men.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as using long ester injectables, difficulties making your own “pre-loaded” syringes, and the safety of Equipoise in humans.

June 2009 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include the acceptance of PCT protocols by the medical community, spiked supplements and failed drug tests, and medical injury reports concerning the use of “grey market” designer steroids.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as the OTC designer steroid dimethazine, William’s response to Victor Conte, and the injectable stanozolol Fortaplus from Paraguay.

May 2009 – “ Steroid Prohibition and the Steroid Supply” examines how laws criminalizing anabolic steroids have shifted the supply of these drugs to countries with less restrictive laws, and ultimately to a market dominated by underground manufacturing.

ANABOLICS Q&A covers such topics as Sustanon during cutting cycles, subcutaneous vs. intramuscular hCG, syringe filters, and avoiding injection site scar tissue.

April 2009 – William answers reader questions, discussing the sometimes occurrence of nosebleeds during anabolic steroid use, trenbolone enanthate vs. acetate, and the use of liver support supplements with oral steroids.

March 2009 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include Iranian oxymetholone, the underground lab Geneza, and a new “stacking system” based entirely on a misunderstanding of steroid action.

February 2009 – William answers reader questions, touching on such topics as counterfeit Drive from Australia, the Landerlan steroid manufacturing company from Paraguay, and the British underground lab R.O.H.M.

2008

January 2009 – In “Heavy Metal Gear” William discusses laboratory tests he had ordered on a dozen underground steroid products, noting that approximately 20% were contaminated with heavy metals.

November 2008 – “Ending the Designer Steroid Loophole” looks at new technologies that may allow drug-testing officials to identify steroid use by athletes, even if the steroids being used are presently unknown to medicine (designer steroids).

October 2008 – “The Battle over hGH Heats Up” looks at the political and scientific battle presently going on inside the medical community over the use of growth hormone supplements by healthy adults for anti-aging purposes.

September 2008 – “On Liver Health” examines the potential effects of anabolic steroids on liver function, as well as lab tests that can be conducted with your physician to look at the present state of your liver health.

August 2008 – “Counterfeit Analysis Report” looks closely at a group of laboratory tests conducted on a large group (n=70) of black market steroids and other drug products that had been confiscated by law enforcement officials in Germany.

July 2008 – Anabolic Research Update examines loopholes in the testosterone epitestosterone ratio test that may favor Asian athletes in the 2008 Olympics, as well as two medical injury reports involving steroid abuse by bodybuilders.

June 2008 – Anabolic Research Update looks at the effects of steroids on right ventricular function, a new 2-day testosterone patch, and a potential new test for designer steroid misuse by athletes.

May 2008 – Anabolic Research Update looks at the recent change in the Spanish market for Winstrol, which involved Zambon transferring drug rights to a new company called Desma. Also, pictures and descriptions are provided of new counterfeits of old Mexican veterinary steroids from Quality Vet and Denkall.

April 2008 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include potential reductions in cognitive performance during testosterone replacement, and a finding of a loop diuretic in the OTC supplement “Star Caps”.

March 2008 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include symptoms of clenbuterol overdose, testosterone and health, and the potential for a urine test to detect insulin use by athletes.

February 2008 – ”Sustanon: Down with the King?” examines the cost ineffectiveness and lack of additional benefit with using Sustanon for bodybuilding purposes in comparison to testosterone enanthate or cypionate.

January 2008 – “More Needle Arcana” examines the subcutaneous administration of testosterone, along with techniques for preventing injection channel leaks.

2007

December 2007 – “Arachidonic Acid: The New Mass Builder” showcases an article by Mike Roberts of Baylor University, which discusses the anabolic effects and potential supplemental use of the omega-6 essential fatty acid arachidonic acid.

November 2007 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include beating the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratio testing in sports, and the appearance of drugs in European supplements.

October 2007 – “Gear-Fer Madness: Roid Rage, Public Enemy #1” examines the medical evidence and popular misconceptions about aggressive/violent behavior and steroid abuse.

September 2007 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include GH replacement therapy in adults, and injury reports pertaining to the use of OTC designer steroid supplements.

August 2007 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include the discontinuance of U.S. nandrolone products, hair testing for steroid use, and the spiking of supplement products with drugs.

July 2007 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include the increased use of excessive doses by recreational bodybuilders and methenolone from the underground lab International Pharmaceuticals.

June 2007 – “DMN, New Designer Steroid” examines the designer steroid dimethylnandrolone, recently circulating on the black market and manufactured exclusively by underground labs.

May 2007 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include the new designer steroid epistane, as well as purchasing steroids in Mexico post-“Gear Grinder”.

April 2007 – ”Pills, Pins, & Pain” examines the lower relative toxicity associated with most injectable steroids, and ways to minimize

March 2007 – ”The Esters of Testosterone: All the Same?” looks at the history of testosterone ester development, and what advantages the newer compounds presented over the old. Helps explain why we have so many different types of testosterone, and if we really need them.

February 2007 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include low dosed use of Anadrol, Counterfeit Thai Stanol, and the misapplication of furazabol for lowering cholesterol.

January 2007 – ”Anabolic Steroids: A Primer” takes a step back to give a comprehensive overview and history concerning both the medical and nonmedical applications of anabolic/androgenic steroids.

2006

December 2006 – ”Sustanon: Down with the King?” examines the cost ineffectiveness and lack of additional benefit with using Sustanon for bodybuilding purposes in comparison to cheaper (and often more readily available) forms of testosterone such an enanthate or cypionate.

November 2006 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include taking orals on an empty stomach for maximum absorption, and the “safest” steroid to use for building muscle.

October 2006 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include a new urine test for methandrostenolone, the growth promoting effect of steroids on the gums (gingival enlargement), and the use of nandrolone during dialysis.

September 2006 – Anabolic Research Update looks at several new studies in the area of performance enhancing substances. Discussions include the anabolic and anti-catabolic properties of insulin, and the suppression of beneficial antioxidant enzymes following nandrolone administration.

August 2006 – ”A Closer look at Oxandrolone” takes an up close look at the pharmacological properties of “Anavar”, one of the most expensive and sought after oral anabolic steroids.

July 2006 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include hormone replacement therapy on prostate testing, the dwindling supply of pharmaceutical stanozolol products, and steroid stacking.

June 2006 – “On the Safety of Underground (U.G.) Labs” examines underground steroid manufacturing techniques, and compares them to the rigid standards required for the production of legitimate pharmaceuticals.

May 2006 – “The SERM/AI Debate: A Focus on Cardiovascular Health” examines the negative impact that aromatase inhibitors can have on the cholesterol balance in men compared to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, which acts as an estrogen in the liver and may help protect cholesterol levels.

April 2006 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include the aftermath of DEA “Operation Gear Grinder” in Mexico, and the effectiveness of short cycles using GH or Deca.

March 2006 – “Counterfeit Chronicles Fake Gear Goes State-Of-The-Art” examines the sophistication of modern steroid counterfeiters, who are often able to copy products with high precision. Also discusses some security features that may help protect against counterfeiting.

February 2006 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include counterfeit Italian methandrostenolone, American pharmaceutical IGF-1, Halodrol, and the veterinary steroid Cheque Drops.

January 2006 – “Steroid Fatigue: A Proposed Explanation” examines the potential link between anabolic steroid use and fatigue, with a specific focus on the role of steroid aromatization/estrogen in maintaining optimal mental energy.

2005

December 2005 – “Marijuana and Bodybuilding: The Scope on Dope” examines the research concerning the effects of cannabis on testosterone level, metabolism, and appetite.

November 2005 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include U.S. boldenone undecylenate (Equipoise), Thai stanozolol (Azolol), and a mysterious unknown site enhancement steroid.

October 2005 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include the Australian veterinary steroid Drive, Chinese GH (Jintropin), and combining AAS with the natural anabolic supplement arachidonic acid (X-Factor).

September 2005 – “The Steroid Sopranos” exposes Dr. Gary Wadler, famous advocate for the criminalization of anabolic steroids, for his lack of a fundamental understanding of these drugs, specifically his statement that anabolic steroids can give male steroid users “high pitched” voices.

August 2005 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include the underground steroid product Testane, and aromatase inhibitors limiting the anabolic effects of testosterone/aromatizable drugs.

July 2005 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include injectable L-carnosine, the DEA Powermedica raid, and the potential interaction between acetaminophen and oxymetholone.

May 2005 – “DMT (Desoxymethyltestosterone)” examines the chemical structure and pharmacological properties of the newly identified designer steroid DMT, the last designer steroid identified in relation to the BALCO doping scandal.

April 2005 – “In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include underground boldenone acetate, the Mexican company Animal Power, and increase urination when switching certain steroids.

2004

December 2004 – “In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include post-cycle testosterone recovery, short vs. long cycles, and the ultra potent (and toxic) designer steroid methyltrienolone.

November 2004 – In Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include “Sustanon flu”, estrogen rebound, and the influence of fluoxymesterone on testosterone synthesis.

October 2004 – In this month’s Anabolic Research Update William answers questions from readers. Discussions include aromatase inhibitors, steroid receptor downregulation, and counterfeit steroid identification.

September 2004 – “Gear and Beer” examines the relationship between certain anabolic steroids, oxidative stress, and liver toxicity, and reviews a recent study that looks at the combined effects of AAS and alcohol consumption.

August 2004 – “Testosterone and Prostate Cancer” looks at the relationship between male androgens and prostate carcinoma, with an emphasis on examining the relative risk/safety of hormone replacement therapy in older men.

July 2004 – “Black Market Update” looks at steroid products traded on the illicit market, including trenbolone by Generic Supplements, and Thai oxandrolone from Body Research (Bonavar).

June 2004 – “A New Understanding of Steroid Action” looks at recent research experiments that help us better understand how steroids impart a message to muscle cells, telling them to increase protein synthesis.

May 2004 – “Black Market Update” looks at a variety of products and topics associated with the illicit trade of anabolic steroids, including lab tests on Red Star and SYD Group, Canadian testosterone patches, and U.S. law enforcement crackdown on steroids and “research chemical” sellers.

April 2004 – “Eight Rules for a Safe Steroid Cycle” looks at a variety of steps that bodybuilders can take to minimize the health risks associated with the use of anabolic steroids.

March 2004 – “Black Market Update” examines several steroid products circulating among bodybuilders, including Russian methandrostenolone, Brazilian oxymetholone (Hemogenin), South African cypionate (Depotrone), and a new formulation of drostanolone (Dromostan) from the Philippines.

January 2004 – “The Search for Site Enhancement” looks at the practice of using local “spot” injections of anabolic steroids or other pharmaceutical products to increase the size of individual smaller muscle groups such as the deltoids, biceps, and triceps.

2003

December 2003 – “Myths, Misconceptions, and Misinformation” looks to correct ten pieces of information that are often accepted as fact by steroid users, but are actually incorrect.

November 2003 – “Underground Steroids” looks at the illegal business of clandestine steroid manufacturing. Includes a brief description of approximately two dozen popular underground labs.

October 2003 – “Black Market Update: Mexico” examines popular veterinary steroid manufacturers in Mexico including Quality Vet, SYD Grouo, Loeffler, Ttokkyo, Denkall, Brovel, and Tornel. Includes revealing lab tests on various items obtained on local market.

September 2003 – “The New Anti-estrogens” looks at the new anti-estrogns toremifene, fulvestrant, and exemestane. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at the French export Weratestone, as well as counterfeit Russian nandrolone from Farmadon.

August 2003 – “Understanding Injectable Steroid Esters” explains in detail how esters of the same drug (such as testosterone cypionate, enanthate, propionate etc.) work in the body.

July 2003 – “Androgen Receptor Concentrations” examines the effects of anabolic steroids and exercise on the level of steroid receptors in the muscles. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at British Dragon from Thailand, as well as counterfeit U.S. testosterone cypionate from Geneva.

June 2003 – “Black Market Update” examines a new underground steroid laboratory in Mexico called Bratis, which purports to be a legitimate drug manufacturing company from Eastern Europe.

April 2003 – “The Steroid Safety Debate: Studies with Real Dosages” takes a close look at the health effects of anabolic steroids with several studies that use the types of high dosages common to bodybuilders. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at counterfeit Bold from Quality Vet, and Hormotrop HGH from Brazil.

February 2003 – “Designer Steroids” explains the nuts and bolts of undetectable anabolic steroids, and how to find them. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at counterfeit Spanish Primobolan Depot, and Testo Enant from Geymonat Italy.

January 2003 – “Estrogen Rebound?” looks at myths and facts concerning post-cycle estrogenic over activity. Also, “Black Market Update” discusses the recent bust of Ttokkyo labs in Mexico, and Deposteron testosterone cypionate from Novaquimica Brazil.

2002

December 2002 – “Insulin as an Anabolic Agent” looks at the protein synthesizing and anti-catabolic effects on this powerful hormone. Also, “Underground Clips” looks at Jenaka underground Anadrol, and counterfeit Greek Oxybolone.

November 2002 – “The GH Studies” looks at a collection of medical papers on the effects of HGH. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at blotter sheet “Paper Steroids” from the Redi-Cat operation, and a crude underground trenbolone.

October 2002 – “Aromatase Inhibitors, Nolvadex, and Cholesterol” discusses the risks and benefits of different anti-estrogen choices. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at Thai Anabol and U.S. compounded medicines.

September 2002 – “Non-surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia” examines drug therapies for treating mild gyno. Also, “Black Market Update” looks at Testolent from Slovenia and Stanol 50 from Ttokkyo Labs Mexico.

August 2002 – “Debunking the Class System” takes a shot at the recently popular belief that there are two very different classes of steroids; those with receptor and those with non-receptor mediated anabolic activities. Proponents of this theory have failed to take into account several important factors in differentiating their supposed Class I and Class II steroids, forcing us to reevaluate their conclusions.

July 2002 – “Nandrolone and the HPTA” attempts to explain the unusually strong suppressive nature of this steroid toward testosterone production by disclosing a new mode of inhibitive action, which seems to be mediated through direct progestational interference with LH sensitivity in the testes.